The salary gaps in Israel have narrowed since 1990, when they were 47 percent, but in the past decade there has been almost no change. The “motherhood penalty” in Israel, a term describing the reduction in women’s salaries after the birth of their first child, reaches 28 percent in Israel, according to a new study by the Chief Economist Division in the Finance Ministry. With regard to the personal injustice, I do not think much need be said to demonstrate the nature and force of the injury that each of the two respected directors will https://asian-date.net/western-asia/israel-women suffer personally.
- A law passed in 1978 made exemptions for women on religious grounds automatic upon the signing of a simple declaration attesting to the observance of orthodox religious practices.
- Of those granted an exemption, 35-36% were exempted for religious reasons.
- Only 30 percent of Arab women participate in the labor force in Israel, compared to 60 percent of Arab men, 60 percent of the general female population, and 68 percent of the general male public.
- The Haganah stated in its law that its lines were open to “Every Jewish male or female, who is prepared and trained to fulfill the obligation of national defense.” Most female recruits served as medics, communications specialists, and weaponeers.
- The 2006 Lebanon War marked the first time since 1948 that female soldiers were active in field operations alongside male soldiers.
- Born in Tel Aviv in 1942, Beinisch studied law in Jerusalem before embarking on a long career in public law, becoming the State Attorney , a Supreme Court Judge and finally its president.
In addition to including an Arab party for the first time in Israel’s 73-year-history, this government also boasts a record number of female ministers—nine out of 27. Judicial decisions regarding the principle of gender equality in the public spheres of politics, economic life, and the defense forces, which are ostensibly secular institutions, have nevertheless been affected by the extent to which they impinge on religious values or sensitivities. Following the amendment, a modest amount of women began to enlist in combat support and light combat roles in a few areas, including the Artillery Corps, infantry units, and various armored divisions.
In 1950, 4.2 percent of local representatives were women; by 1978, 5.5%; and in 1993, 11%. In 2011, there were many women local representatives though only one woman, Yael German, was serving as a mayor of a local authority. In the eighteenth Knesset, one woman – Orly Levi-Abekasis – serves as one of the Deputy Speakers, another – Yirdena Miller-Horovitz – is the Secretary General and two women – Tzipi Hotovely and Ronit Tirosh – are committee chairpersons. Tzipi Livni, who has held minister portfolios in past governments, is the current of the largest Knesset party, the Labor Party, and is the head of the opposition. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, only thirteen women have served as cabinet ministers, including former-Prime Minister Golda Meir and former-Vice Prime Minister Tzipi Livni. While every government since 1992 has included at least one woman minister, at least seven of the thirty-three governments have featured zero women in power positions. While some women have been involved in political life since the founding of the first Jewish political institutions at the turn of the century, women in Israel are still underrepresented in many areas of public life.
The purpose and the obligation are that ‘the composition of the board of director of a Government corporation shall reflect the proper representation of persons of both sexes.’ The second part, s. 18A, prescribes a binding course of action which ministers are ordered to follow ‘until such proper representation is achieved…’.
With regard to the representative of his Ministry on the board of the Authority, his decision was of decisive importance. Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. In the sphere of government, the number of women representatives has increased slightly- both in the Knesset and in local representation, but women candidates have not had much success in mayoral elections. Given Israel’s excellent educational opportunities for women, strong legislation and history of women politicians, men and women should be equally represented within the ranks of public leadership. Nevertheless, women have been consistently underrepresented in virtually all areas of public life. Women work in nearly all areas of the civil service, yet the classic pyramid structure of high representation at the lower levels and minimal representation in the top ranks fully applies.
The awakening to the reality of women’s disadvantage brought a decade of feminist legislation, which was initiated by feminist organizations. The first legislative measure in 1987 was to reverse a Labor Court decision that had upheld mandatory early retirement for women. After that, an equal employment opportunity law was passed, with remedies for all forms of employment discrimination and conversion of childcare rights from maternal to parental rights. Laws requiring affirmative action for directors of government companies and for civil service employees and imposing an obligation to pay equal pay for work of equal value were passed. In 1998 the Knesset adopted a law prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace, which extended its prohibitions beyond the workplace to other dependent relationships, in education, healthcare and the military, and also to non-dependent relationships where there are repeated acts of harassment.
The OECD reported in 2016 that income disparity between men in women in Israel is particularly high compared with other countries in the OECD. On average, men in Israel make 22 percent more than women, which places Israel among the four OECD with the highest wage inequality between men and women.
In 2018, 5.6% of women aged years reported that they had been subject to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months. Of those granted an exemption, 35-36% were exempted for religious reasons.